The spaceship throneroom From Dune:
Reverend Mother Ramallo (Silvana Mangano, L) and Emperor Shaddam IV (José Ferrer, R), from Dune (1984) (Source)
Ferrer in the throne room (Source)
And still another screen capture (Source)
The most obvious similarity between the set design and art direction for Dune and the Großes Schauspielhaus is the use of stalactite forms.
Pölzig's interior to the Schauspielhaus:
For those of you who keep track on these types of things, Dune's production designer was Anthony (Tony) Masters, who also worked on Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968).